Poisoning & Drug Dependence

NIH Initiative Aims to Address Opioid Misuse Over Long Term

June 21, 2018

Pain management could be enhanced by research to develop a better understanding of chronic pain and development of new non-addictive pain treatments. To speed movement of non-addictive treatments through the clinical pipeline, a public-private HEAL partnership is planned.

CDC: Salmonella-Tainted Melon Outbreak Continues to Expand

June 21, 2018

Of the 63 patients with available information who became ill between, 34 have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Illnesses have been reported in Illinois (7), Indiana (11), Kentucky (1), Michigan (38), Missouri (10), Ohio (2), and Tennessee (1).

Meds for Opioid Use Disorder May Reduce Mortality in OD Survivors

June 20, 2018

Minority of opioid overdose survivors receive MOUD; buprenorphine, MMT linked to reduced mortality

FIRS: Guidance Offered for Protecting Youth From E-Cigarettes

June 20, 2018

Among youth, there has been an increase in the use of nicotine-delivering electronic cigarettes worldwide. In addition to physical dependence, youth are susceptible to the social and environmental influences to use electronic cigarettes.

Cannabis Use Linked to Psychosis Symptoms in Adolescents

June 19, 2018

These correlations were similar in size to the autoregressive link between PS from ages 15 to 16. There was a statistically significant association for PS at age 15 years with cannabis use at age 16 years.

CDC: Many High School Students Engage in Health-Risk Behaviors

June 19, 2018

Many high school students were engaged in behaviors associated with chronic disease; 8.8% had smoked cigarettes and 13.2% had used an electronic vapor product on at least 1 day during the past 30 days.

First Generic Versions of Suboxone Get FDA Approval for Opioid Dependence

By June 15, 2018

The treatment combines buprenorphine, a partial-opioid agonist, with naloxone, an opioid antagonist.

E-Cigarette Flavorings May Impair Vascular Function

June 15, 2018

The researchers found that freshly isolated endothelial cells from participants who use non-menthol- or menthol-flavored tobacco cigarettes showed impaired A23187-stimulated nitric oxide production.

Taking Advantage of a Drug-Drug Interaction: A Case of Valproic Acid Toxicity

By June 14, 2018

A significant decrease in the patient's serum VPA concentration was observed following the first dose of meropenem as well as over the next 14 hours (to 36.5mg/mL). Additionally, the patient was reported to become more alert despite increased serum ammonia levels.

Little Evidence Nicotine Preloading Helps Smokers Quit

June 14, 2018

Participants were randomized to either the control arm (893 participants) and received standard smoking cessation pharmacotherapy and behavioral support or to the preloading arm (899 adults) who received the same treatment supplemented by four weeks of 21mg nicotine patch use before quitting.

Sixty Sickened so Far in Salmonella-Tainted Melon Outbreak

June 14, 2018

Of the 60 patients who became ill between April 30, 2018, and May 30, 2018, 31 have been hospitalized. The patients range in age from 1 to 97 years.

Older Age, ICU, Poor Renal Fcn Up Risk of Opioid OD in Hospital

June 13, 2018

The researchers found that being age 65 years or older (40.9 versus 29.5%; P=.026), being in an ICU (medical ICU/cardiac ICU: 27.3 versus 3.4%; P<.001; surgical ICU: 18.1 versus 5.7%; P=.031), and having renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤60: 50 vs 28.4%; P=.034) were associated with opioid overdose.

Wearable Device Cleared for Use During Opioid Detoxification

By June 12, 2018

Electrical pulses are sent through small needles that are inserted in the ear to combat the early stages of detoxification, leading to stabilization.

Kitchen Towels Are Source of Possibly Pathogenic Bacteria

June 12, 2018

Compared with single-use towels, multipurpose towels had higher colony-forming units (CFUs); humid towels had higher CFUs than dry ones. The mean CFU was 2.76 × 105, and was significantly higher from cotton versus nylon and mixture of both towels.

Honey + Sucralfate May Reduce Injury After Accidental Button Battery Ingestion

By June 11, 2018

Noting that infants and children who ingest button batteries can experience esophageal damage leading to significant morbidity and death in as little as 2 hours, researchers from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Nationwide Children's Hospital aimed to identify effective options for mitigating these effects by testing common weakly acidic household beverages, viscous liquids, and sucralfate (Carafate).

2011 to 2017 Saw Drop in Youth Use of Any Tobacco Products

June 11, 2018

The researchers found that from 2011 to 2017 there was a decrease in current use of any tobacco product among high school students, from 24.2 to 19.6%, and from 7.5 to 5.6% among middle school students.

Synthetic Cannabis May Increase Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Risk

June 08, 2018

Ischemic cardiomyopathy described in young male, which was attributed to synthetic cannabinoid use

Some Evidence Mobile Health Interventions Can Lower CVD Risk

June 08, 2018

mHealth programs generally improve overall cardiovascular disease risk, at least in the short term

USPSTF Advises PCPs to Screen Adults for Unhealthy Alcohol Use

June 06, 2018

"The Task Force once again found that screening adults and providing brief counseling in primary care settings can help detect and reduce unhealthy alcohol use," Task Force member Carol Mangione, MD, said in a statement.

Two Naloxone Hydrochloride Lots Recalled

June 05, 2018

Two lots of naloxone hydrochloride injections, USP have been recalled by Hospira, Inc., due to concerns regarding the presence of particulates on the syringe plunger. Naloxona Hydrochloride Lots Recalled Due to Potential Presence of Particulate Matter

Tighter Alcohol Policies Cut Alcohol-Related Crash Deaths

May 30, 2018

For each 10-percentage point increase in the Alcohol Policy Scale score (more restrictive state policies) there was a reduced individual-level odds of alcohol involvement in a crash fatality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.90).

CDC Warns of Serious Coagulopathy Outbreak Linked to Synthetic Cannabinoids

By May 29, 2018

Since brodifacoum - a long-acting vitamin K-dependent antagonist, used as a rodenticide - was detected in drug and biologic samples from patients using synthetic cannabinoids, there have been 202 reported cases of coagulopathy in 9 states (mostly Illinois; N=164)

Rising Fatal Drug Overdoses Linked to Years of Life Lost

May 24, 2018

Growth in fatal overdoses linked to increased mortality, years of life lost for non-Hispanic whites

Long-acting buprenorphine depots may be efficacious for opioid use disorder

May 22, 2018

In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, weekly or monthly buprenorphine depot injections were non-inferior to daily sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone in maintaining no evidence of illicit opioid use at 24 weeks in outpatients with opioid use disorder (OUD).

Patterns of Potential Misuse Help Assess Risk of Opioid Overdose

May 22, 2018

There was a positive correlation for subsequent opioid overdose with successively greater numbers of prescribers or pharmacies or higher opioid quantities during the index period.

First Non-Opioid Drug Approved for Managing Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms

By May 17, 2018

Lucemyra, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonist, works by reducing the release of norepinephrine and decreasing sympathetic tone.

Reported Cannabis Use Up in Parents With Children in Home

May 14, 2018

Data were obtained from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2002 to 2015. The researchers did not have information on the method of cannabis use (ie, smoking versus edible forms).

Tobacco Cessation Support Lacking in Mental Health Facilities

May 14, 2018

The researchers found that 48.9% of mental health treatment facilities reported screening patients for tobacco use in 2016; 37.6, 25.2, and 21.5% offered tobacco cessation counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, and non-nicotine tobacco cessation medications, respectively.

Novel Thirdhand Smoke Exposure Route Identified

May 11, 2018

The chemical residue from cigarette smoke that attaches to anything and anyone in the vicinity of a smoke cloud, can still make its way into the air of buildings that currently have a non-smoking designation.

Study IDs Unintended Consequence of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs

By May 09, 2018

All of these studies, however, had methodological shortcomings (ie, inadequate adjustment for time-invariant; time-varying confounding factors; no adjustment for competing laws/policies that may have affected overdoses).