The researchers identified 362,550 eligible children (52% boys, 27% African-American, 18% Hispanic), of whom 58% received at least 1 antibiotic prescription at <24 months of age.
Despite increased efforts to prevent and reduce obesity, rates of childhood obesity continue to increase.
Using data from the original and offspring Framingham cohort studies, a 24-year weight history was obtained prior to analysis of mortality.
This guidance, updated for the first time since 2008, provides evidence-based recommendations for children (ages 3-17) and adults.
The researchers found that 72.4, 11.8, and 3.3% of children were prescribed an antibiotic, an H2RA, and a PPI, respectively. There was an association between antibiotic prescriptions and obesity (hazard ratio, 1.26).
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was found to be the most effective bariatric procedure reviewed in this study in terms of patient weight loss.
The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study (N=9340) evaluated the time from randomization to first occurrence of major adverse CV events (MACE) (non-fatal heart attack, non-fatal stroke, CV death) in patients treated with liraglutide 1.8mg once daily or placebo.
Patients treated with JAK inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis may be less likely to have low disease activity if they are obese compared with those who are overweight.
Life expectancy in the US has declined in each of the past 2 years, according to the National Center for Health Statistics. That's the first multi-year decrease since 1962 and 1963.
In this new analysis, researchers looked at the long-term effects of the drug on diabetes prevention and remission in these patients.
In the CAMELLIA-TIMI 61 study, 12,000 overweight or obese patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or multiple cardiovascular risk factors were randomized to receive either lorcaserin 10mg twice daily or placebo.
The authors report that current data do not support greater dietary diversity as an effective strategy to promote healthy eating patterns and healthy body weight.
Researchers identified 23 randomized-controlled trials that included patients with PCOS and overweight/obesity (N=941) and compared the effectiveness of various pharmacological interventions (i.e., metformin, inositol, liraglutide, orlistat) on weight reduction.
Approximately 12,000 patients took part in the CAMELLIA-TIMI 61 trial in which participants were randomized to either lorcaserin HCl 10mg twice daily or placebo.
Age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was increased for men living in medium or small metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) versus those living in large MSAs (42.4 vs 31.8%); the difference for men living in large MSAs vs non-MSAs was not statistically significant.
The researchers found that from baseline to week 12, the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry percentage total body fat increased by 1.18, 4.12, and 1.66% for risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole, respectively, and was significantly greater for olanzapine than risperidone or aripiprazole.
Compared to women with stable healthy normal-weight, women who maintained metabolically healthy obesity during follow-up were still at elevated cardiovascular risk (hazard ratio, 1.57); this risk was lower than for initially metabolically healthy women who converted to an unhealthy phenotype (hazard ratios, 1.90 and 2.74 for normal-weight and obesity, respectively).
Higher BMI in lesbian and bisexual women is an important contributor to the greater level of type 2 diabetes among this population, the authors found.
Improved research methods needed to determine effectiveness of anti-obesity public health initiatives
Researchers found that amongst nearly 300 studies reporting the impact of policies, programs, or changes in built environment on controlling and preventing obesity, most natural experiments had high risk of bias and poor handling of dropouts and withdrawals.
The researchers found that at baseline, severely obese patients had higher disability scores versus overweight patients in both Forward and VARA.
In terms of study design, guidance, documentation, and communication about methods used should be improved. Cross-cutting recommendations are provided for improving the rigor of natural experiments in obesity.
The researchers found that on average, patients and their parents perceived FBT as "quite helpful" and "extremely helpful," respectively.
Weight stigma was associated with increased odds of having a body mass index (BMI) consistent with underweight or obesity compared with normal weight.
"The combination of ethnicity/race with markers of insulin resistance and genetic factors might help identify obese youth at risk for developing fatty liver," the authors write.
Five factors correlated with breastfeeding behaviors: intentions to breastfeed; belief in the nutritional adequacy and sufficiency of breast milk; belief about others' infant feeding preferences; body image; and social knowledge.
Each additional 10cm greater waist circumference at early childhood was associated with 1.99 higher odds of elevated ALT at mid-childhood, in multivariable-adjusted models.