Melanoma And Other Skin Cancers
Pharmaceutical vial fill volumes can be optimized to reduce drug wastage when dosing is calculated by patient weight or body surface area, according to a new study.
The Food and Drug Administration has granted accelerated approval to Keytruda (pembrolizumab; Merck) for the treatment of patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.
A millimeter-scale, wireless, battery-free, miniaturized dosimeter can monitor ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and appears to work well in different settings.
The approval was based on data from 2 open-label studies where patients with metastatic CSCC or locally advanced CSCC who were not candidates for curative surgery or curative radiation received Libtayo 3mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks for up to 48 weeks or up to 96 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or completion of planned treatment.
Compared with excision or cryotherapy, for phototherapy using methyl-aminolevulinic acid or aminolevulinic acid there was a higher proportion of patients reporting good or better cosmetic outcomes (93.8 and 95.8, respectively, versus 77.8 and 51.1%, respectively).
Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare form of skin cancer associated with higher mortality rates than other skin cancers.
Doctors tried an unorthodox approach - injecting each tumor with Gardasil, the HPV vaccine. The result: All the tumors completely and rapidly disappeared.
The researchers identified a combination of 10 autoantibody biomarkers that, as a panel, displayed a sensitivity, specificity, and an area under the curve of 79%, 84%, and 0.828, respectively, for primary melanoma detection.
The researchers found that 232 of the 499 participants randomized to MC1R testing logged on to the website, and of these, 88% (204 participants) requested testing and 82% (167 participants) returned the test kit.
The researchers found that for T1a diagnoses, participating pathologists' concordance with the consensus reference diagnosis increased from 44% with AJCC 7 criteria to 54% with AJCC 8 criteria.
The approval of these kinase inhibitors was supported by data from the Phase 3, randomized, active-controlled, open-label, multicenter COLUMBUS trial (N=577).
Overall, 75.3% of users and 55.4% of non-users reported having performed an SSE. Fewer people reported having had a PSE, but examinations were more common among indoor tanning bed users versus non-users (60 versus 40.1%).
The researchers found that, compared with men treated in control groups, the pooled overall survival hazard ratio was 0.72 for male patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
The researchers found that the mean time to clinical resolution was 9 days with teledermoscopy referral, compared with 35 days with usual care alone.
After stratification by gender, a significant correlation was seen for aspirin exposure and melanoma diagnosis among males (adjusted relative risk, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 2.76; P=.004), but not females (adjusted relative risk, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.17 to 1.63; P=.266).
Approval was based on COMBI-AD, an international, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 870 patients with Stage III melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations, and pathologic involvement of regional lymph node(s).
Furthermore, motivation for perceived appearance enhancement was a significant predictor of addictive tanning behavior. The correlation between narcissism and additive tanning was mediated by appearance motivation.
The researchers found that in the overall intention-to-treat population, pembrolizumab correlated with significantly longer recurrence-free survival than placebo at a median follow-up of 15 months.
"Few indoor tanners (ITs) have been screened for skin cancer, although skin cancer (SC) rates are higher than among non-tanners," the authors write. "It is not surprising that SC screening is associated with SC risk factors (e.g., family history of SC and age) among ITs."
Based on these findings, in order to reduce the risk of skin cancer, the USPSTF recommends counseling regarding minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation for those aged 6 months to 24 years with fair skin types (B recommendation).
The researchers found that 34.2% of participants experienced sunburn in 2015. The prevalence was higher among younger age groups (51.2% for those aged 18 to 29 years) and in non-Hispanic whites and those with sun-sensitive skin (42.5 and 50.2%, respectively).
The researchers found that tanning addiction was positively associated with being female, not being in a relationship, extroversion, neuroticism, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness. New Screening Tool Developed to Assess Tanning Addiction
Compared with mice colonized with a control S. epidermidis strain that did not produce 6-HAP, colonization of mice with a 6-HAP-producing strain reduced the incidence of ultraviolet-induced tumors. Multiple healthy human subjects had S. epidermidis strains producing 6-HAP.
The researchers found that 25.3% of the lesions were MIS. The most frequent dermoscopic criteria for MIS were regression, atypical network, and irregular dots and/or globules (92.9, 85.5, and 50.2%, respectively).
The obesity-related survival benefit was seen only for patients receiving targeted therapy (hazard ratios, 0.72 and 0.6 for progression-free and overall survival, respectively) and immunotherapy (hazard ratios, 0.75 and 0.64, respectively), not for patients receiving chemotherapy.
Parent sex, parent indoor tanning use, and adolescents' skin reactivity were associated with perceiving high indoor tanning benefits.