Infectious Diseases

Early intrauterine Zika infection linked to birth defects among infants in the US French Territories

March 20, 2018

A prospective cohort including pregnant women in the US French Territories with PCR-confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection found a 7% overall risk of neurologic and ocular defects among subsequent offspring.

Flucytosine plus fluconazole is noninferior to amphotericin B in treating cryptococcal meningitis

March 20, 2018

Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis with two weeks of flucytosine and fluconazole was noninferior to two weeks of amphotericin B.

Transmission of Respiratory Viruses During Flights Investigated

March 20, 2018

The researchers found low probability of direct transmission to passengers not seated within 1 row or 2 seats of an infectious passenger. To measure the true pathogen burden, environmental samples were collected during the flights from the air and hard surfaces.

Providers Trained in Integrative Medicine Less Likely to Prescribe Antibiotics

March 20, 2018

However, significantly fewer total antibiotics (relative risk [RR], 0.78) and antibiotics for respiratory tract infection (RR, 0.74) were prescribed for integrative medicine GP surgeries versus conventional GP surgeries.

Have Recent Guidelines Reduced Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing?

March 19, 2018

The researchers found that during the 3-year study period, about 98 million outpatient antibiotic prescriptions were filled by 39 million insurance beneficiaries. Azithromycin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, and cephalexin were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics.

Does Gut Bacteria Translocate to the Brain During Sepsis?

March 15, 2018

Among humans who died of sepsis, bacterial taxa detected in their brains were distinct from those who died of noninfectious causes and were correlated with S100A8/A9 expression.

Pediatric Appendicitis Risk Calculator Shows Promising Accuracy Results

March 15, 2018

The researchers included sex, age, duration of pain, guarding, pain migration, maximal tenderness in the right-lower quadrant, and absolute neutrophil count in the final pARC model. The pARC showed near perfect calibration in the validation sample as well as a high degree of discrimination (area under the curve, 0.85).

Zika Birth Defect Rates Correlate to Time of Infection in Pregnant Women

March 15, 2018

In 39 fetuses and infants (7.0%), neurologic and ocular defects possibly associated with ZIKV infection were seen; 10 of these were not carried to term (termination for medical reasons), 1 was stillborn, and 28 were live-born.

CDC: Update on Noncongenital Zika Cases in the U.S.

March 14, 2018

Ninety-five percent of cases were identified in travelers returning from Zika virus-affected areas

Does Oseltamivir Use Increase the Risk of Suicide in Pediatric Patients?

By March 13, 2018

To investigate a possible relationship, researchers from the University of Illinois and the Children's Hospital University analyzed 21,407 suicide-related events among 1 to 18 year old individuals.

Raltegravir Labeling Updated With Long-Term Data from Phase 3 HIV Trial

By March 09, 2018

The Isentress (raltegravir) and Isentrress (raltegravir) HD label was recently updated to include Week 96 data from the Phase 3 trial (ONCEMRK).

Maternal Use of TDF Doesn't Further Reduce HBV Transmission

March 08, 2018

Findings in setting with low HBV transmission with administration of hepatitis B immune globulin, vaccine

High Adherence to HIV Preventative Vaginal Ring Seen in Study

By March 08, 2018

As of October 2017 — the cut off date for interim analysis — 89% of the rings returned had residual dapivirine levels consistent with some use in the prior month.

First Tests to Screen for Babesiosis in Whole Blood, Plasma Approved

By March 07, 2018

These tests are intended to screen samples from individual human donors, including volunteers who give whole blood and blood components, as well as living organ and tissue donors.

Does Cumulative Vaccine Exposure in Infants Raise Risk of Certain Infections?

March 07, 2018

The matched odds ratio for estimated cumulative antigen exposure through 23 months was not significant among children with versus those without non-vaccine-targeted infections from 24 through 47 months of age.

Clinicians Fail to Recognize Signs of Rare but Deadly Infection

By March 06, 2018

In this month's case we look at a situation where a patient and his family had one idea about diagnosis/treatment, and the clinicians had another.

Trogarzo Approved to Treat Multidrug Resistant HIV-1 Infection

By March 06, 2018

The safety and efficacy of Trogarzo were evaluated in a clinical trial of 40 heavily treatment-experienced patients with MDR HIV-1 who continued to have high levels of virus (HIV-RNA) in their blood despite being on antiretroviral drugs.

Hydrocortisone plus fludrocortisone decreases mortality in adults with septic shock

March 06, 2018

Patients with septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU) undergoing mechanical ventilation receiving hydrocortisone plus fludrocortisone had a lower 90-day all-cause mortality compared to placebo treated patients.

Biktarvy Found to Be Non-Inferior to Abacavir-Containing Regimen in Phase 3 Study

By March 05, 2018

Biktarvy is indicated as a complete regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 in adults who have no antiretroviral treatment history or to replace the current antiretroviral regimen in those who are virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA <50c/mL) on a stable antiretroviral regimen for at least 3 months, with no history of treatment failure and no known substitutions associated with resistance to the individual components of Biktarvy.

FDA: Compounded Drugs from Cantrell Drug Company Should Not Be Used

By March 02, 2018

The FDA has also sought legal action to prevent the company from further producing and distributing drugs.

Symfi Lo, Cimduo Will Be Available Soon for HIV Treatment

By March 02, 2018

Symfi Lo will be available in the coming weeks whereas Cimduo is expected in the second quarter of 2018.

Combination Antibiotics Compared in the Treatment of Complicated UTI

By February 28, 2018

The results showed that meropenem/vaborbactam was non-inferior to piperacillin/tazobactam with an overall success rate of 98.4% vs 94.0%.

Surveillance Over Intervention May Be Best Option in CIN2 Lesions

February 28, 2018

The researchers found that the pooled rates were 50% for regression, 32% for persistence, and 18% for progression at 24 months. The rates were 60, 23, and 11%, respectively, in a subgroup analysis of 1,069 women aged younger than 30 years.

Tourist With Measles May Have Exposed Others, Says NY State Dept of Health

By February 27, 2018

A tourist from Australia has been confirmed to have measles.

FDA Approves the Use of Luzu Cream in Younger Patients

By February 23, 2018

Luzu, an azole antifungal, is indicated for the topical treatment of interdigital tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis caused by the organisms Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum.

FDA: Antibiotic Linked to Increased Risk of Death in Heart Disease Patients

By February 22, 2018

The Agency is asking healthcare professionals to use caution before prescribing the antibiotic to this patient population.

Connections Between Depression Severity and HIV Treatment Failure Explored

February 22, 2018

During follow-up, 18.8% of scheduled visits were missed, 21.8% of viral loads were detectable, and the mortality rate was 1.5 deaths for 100 person-years; a dose-response relationship was seen for percentage of days with depression in each outcome.

SEP-1 Interventions May Not Improve Survival in Sepsis

February 22, 2018

The researchers found that in one single-center observational study, lower in-hospital mortality was reported after implementation of the SEP-1 bundle. Increased survival was seen with serial lactate measurement or 30-mL/kg fluid infusions based on data from 16 studies (2 randomized and 14 observational).

ACIP Recommends Use of Heplisav-B for Hepatitis B Prevention in Adults

By February 21, 2018

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted unanimously in favor of including Heplisav-B on its list of ACIP recommended products.

Multistate <i>Salmonella</i> Outbreak Linked to Controversial Supplement

By February 21, 2018

A total of 28 people from 20 states have been infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella.