Results from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study found that children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease were less likely to grow to normal height ranges if they came from lower-income families, even with more prescriptions for growth hormone.

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CKiD is a multicenter, prospective study that evaluated more than 600 children ages 1–16 years with mild-to-moderate renal impairment. CKiD is the first study to evaluate the effects of income on kidney disease progression and complications in this population.

Growth failure was examined because CKD can commonly affect a child’s own growth hormone. Researchers found that kidney disease progressed at similar rate across all income groups in CKiD. Disease progression was defined by a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Socioeconomic status (SES) was based on reported annual family income:

  • High: >$75,000
  • Middle: $30,000–$75,000
  • Low: <$30,000

Dr. Marva Moxey-Mims, a pediatric kidney specialist at the NIH’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, explained that since the lower SES children were receiving a higher proportion of growth hormone prescriptions, “it’s possible that these families are not filling all their prescriptions or are filling them but not sticking to their treatment regimen as higher-income families are.”

Blood pressure control, another factor studied, improved across the groups. Children from lower-income families took an average of 4.5 years to reduce their blood pressure to within normal range vs. 2 years for those from a higher income.

CKiD study is an ongoing study that aims to determine risk factors for declining renal function and to understand how that affects cognitive function, behavior, growth failure, and the risk for cardiovascular disease. Results from the CKiD Study are published in the December issue of the American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

For more information call (800) 654-2452 or visit the AJKD website