HealthDay News — For young children with peanut allergy, initiation of peanut oral immunotherapy is associated with an increase in desensitization and remission, according to a study published in the January 22 issue of The Lancet.

Stacie M. Jones, MD, from the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock, and colleagues conducted a randomized trial involving children aged 12 to younger than 48 months who were reactive to 500mg or less of peanut protein during a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Participants were randomly assigned to receive peanut oil immunotherapy (2000mg peanut protein/day) or placebo (96 and 50 children, respectively) for 134 weeks, followed by 26 weeks of avoidance.

The researchers found that 71 and 2% of those who received peanut oral immunotherapy and placebo, respectively, met the primary outcome of desensitization at week 134 (risk difference, 69%). During the week 134 DBPCFC, the median cumulative tolerated dose was 5005mg for peanut oral immunotherapy and 5mg for placebo. After avoidance, 21 and 2% of participants receiving peanut oral immunotherapy and placebo, respectively, met remission criteria (risk difference, 19%). During week 160, the median cumulative tolerated dose was 755mg and 0mg for peanut oral immunotherapy and placebo, respectively. Younger age and lower baseline peanut-specific immunoglobulin E were predictive of remission in a multivariable regression analysis.

“Peanut oral immunotherapy resulted in desensitization in most children and remission in a substantial proportion of children compared with placebo,” the authors write.

Several authors disclosed financial ties to the biopharmaceutical industry.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)