A new study found that an oral peanut allergy treatment has sustained efficacy for a period of 4 years after cessation, the first time a peanut allergy treatment has demonstrated efficacy for such a long period.

A combination probiotic and peanut oral immunotherapy (PPOIT) was administered to children daily for 18 months. Peanut intake and adverse reactions to peanuts were then systemically documented in the proceeding 4 years. Eighty-six percent of those in the original study were included in the follow-up analysis.

The PPOIT group were significantly more likely to have continued eating peanut than those from the placebo group (16 [67%] of 24 vs 1 [4%] of 24; absolute difference 63% [95% CI 42–83]; P=0·001). Results found that 4 children initially treated with PPOIT and 6 treated with placebo had allergic reactions to peanut intake, none experience prophylaxis.  

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Additionally, in a peanut skin prick test PPOIT-treated individuals had smaller wheals and significantly higher peanut slgG4:slgE ratios than those who received placebo (mean 8.1mm vs. 13.3 mm; absolute difference −5.2 mm [95% CI −10·3 to 0·0] and; geometric mean 67.3 [95% CI 10.3–440.0] us. 5.2 [1.2–21.8];P=0·031, respectively.

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