Results of a recent analysis determined that, although overall human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage is low, trends in coverage have generally increased for many female and male age groups over several years.

In their study, the authors aimed to determine HPV vaccination coverage in 2015-2016, temporal trends in coverage by age, as well as the validity of vaccination status. Self/parent-reported data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was utilized and  “Weighted coverage was estimated for 2-year NHANES cycles by age group for 2007–2008 to 2015–2016 for females (N=14318) and 2011–2012 to 2015–2016 for males (N=7847).” Coverage trends were analyzed in females from 2007-2008 to 2011-2012 as well as in both males and females from 2011-2012 to 2015-2016. Provider-verified vaccination records obtained from a pilot study conducted in 14-29-year-old patients were utilized to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the self/parent-reported vaccination data. 

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The study authors reported, “In 2015–2016, ≥1 dose coverage among females was highest in 14–19 (54.7%) and 20–24 (56.0%) year-olds and lower in successively older age groups.” Similarly, ≥1 dose coverage was lower in older male patients and was highest in 14-19-year old males (39.5%). Coverage was found to be similar in male and female patients aged 9-13 years.

Data analysis also found that coverage increased in females <30 years old between 2007-2008 and 2011-2012. The authors added, “Between 2011–2012 and 2015–2016, there were increases among female age groups including 20–39 year-olds; male coverage increased among ages 9–13, 14–19, and 20–24 years.” A sensitivity of 87.0% and specificity of 83.3% was reported for self/parent-reported receipt of ≥1 dose but was found to be lower for 3 doses.

According to results of this analysis, overall HPV vaccination coverage is low, however, coverage increases were observed in the majority of age groups analyzed.


Lewis RM, Markowitz LE. Human papillomavirus vaccination coverage among females and males, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States 2007-2016. Vaccine.