The first population-based study on high grade prostate cancer and long-term exposure to testosterone therapy reported no increased risk with exposure to this treatment, nor a dose-dependent relationship between prostate cancer risk and testosterone therapy.

In this research published in the Journal of Urology, SEER-Medicare linked data on 52,579 men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer between January 2001 and December 2006 and had a minimum of five years of continuous enrollment before cancer diagnosis were evaluated; of these, 574 had a history of testosterone therapy.

After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, exposure to testosterone therapy was not associated with an increase risk of high grade prostate cancer or receipt of primary androgen deprivation therapy following diagnosis. The risk of high grade disease did not increase according to the total number of testosterone injections.

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Given the slow growth of prostate cancer development, this investigation offers novel and important information to physicians, patients and the general public,” said lead author Jacques Baillargeon, from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. “This study’s findings offer important information regarding the risk-benefit assessment for men with testosterone deficiency who are considering treatment.”

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