Updated on 6/16

While no specific treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently available, several therapies are being investigated globally.*   


Altimmune Inc: developing a single-dose, intranasal vaccine against COVID-19 using its proprietary NasoVAX technology. The vaccine is moving toward animal testing. 

Applied DNA Sciences: collaborating with Takis Biotech to develop a DNA vaccine candidate using PCR-based DNA (“LinearDNA”) manufacturing systems; preclinical testing in animals is expected to begin in the second quarter of 2020.

Beijing Institute of Biotechnology and CanSino Biologics: testing a recombinant adenovirus type 5 vectored vaccine. The vaccine was found to be tolerable and immunogenic in phase 1 study, however, participants with high pre-existing immunity to adenovirus type 5 had a reduced response.

Codagenix Inc: co-developing a live-attenuated vaccine with the Serum Institute of India using viral deoptimization.

GlaxoSmithKline: collaborating with Clover Biopharmaceuticals to develop a protein-based coronavirus vaccine candidate (COVID-19 S-Trimer) using Clover’s proprietary technology (Timer-Tag©) and combining it with GSK’s pandemic adjuvant system.

Inovio Pharmaceuticals: developing a DNA vaccine (INO-4800) to address COVID-19; human trials to begin in the US in April.

Johnson & Johnson: partnering with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) to develop a vaccine using Janssen’s AdVac® and PER.C6® technology, which provide the ability to rapidly upscale production of an optimal vaccine candidate. The Company has accelerated the initiation of the phase 1/2a first-in-human clinical trial of Ad26.COV2-S, recombinant; the trial is expected to begin in the second half of July.

Merck: collaborating with IAVI to develop a vaccine using recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) technology, the same platform used for the development of Merck’s Ebola Zaire virus vaccine. Clinical studies are expected to begin later this year.

Moderna Inc: vials of the Company’s mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273) have been shipped to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to be used in a phase 1 study in the US.  FDA has granted the vaccine candidate Fast Track status. A phase 2 trial is beginning soon; a protocol for a phase 3 study is being finalized with the expectation that the trial could possibly begin in early summer 2020. Early data from the NIAID study showed that the mRNA vaccine elicits an immune response.

Novavax: currently evaluating multiple recombinant nanoparticle vaccine candidates in animal models; initiation of phase 1 testing is expected in late spring of 2020. The COVID-19 vaccine candidates will likely include the saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant to enhance immune responses.

Pfizer and BioNTech: co-developing a potential first-in-class COVID-19 mRNA-based vaccine candidate (BNT162). Phase 1/2 trial has been initiated to determine safety, immunogenicity and optimal dose of 4 mRNA vaccine candidates; first participants have been dosed.  

Sanofi: collaborating with BARDA to develop a vaccine using Sanofi’s recombinant DNA platform. The DNA sequence encoding the antigen will be combined into the DNA of the baculovirus expression platform and used to produce large quantities of the coronavirus antigen which will be formulated to stimulate the immune system to protect against the virus.

Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline: the Companies are collaborating on an adjuvanted vaccine using Sanofi’s S-protein COVID-19 antigen and GSK’s pandemic adjuvant technology. A candidate vaccine is expected to enter clinical trials in the second half of 2020, and if successful, may be available by the second half of 2021.

Sorrento Therapeutics: developing STI-6991, an I-CellTM COVID-19 cellular vaccine made of replication-deficient human erythroleukemia K562 cells expressing membrane-bound S1 protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The I-Cell vaccine is expected to elicit both T cell and B cell immunities against SARS-CoV-2.

*Not an inclusive list. Updates will be made as more information becomes available.