Background: Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in elderly patients, who face an elevated risk of stroke but difficulty sustaining warfarin treatment. Methods and Results-There were 6229 patients (44%) aged 75 years with AF and 2 stroke risk factors randomized to warfarin (target international normalized ratio 2.0-3.0) or rivaroxaban (20mg daily; 15mg if creatinine clearance <50mL/min), double-blind.

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