(HealthDay News) – For children younger than 3 years with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), residual OSA is relatively common after adenotonsillectomy (T&A), according to a study published online Sept. 12 in JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery.

Andrea Nath, MD, from the University of Chicago Medicine, and colleagues examined the impact of T&A on sleep parameters using data from a retrospective review of medical records for 283 children younger than 3 years with polysomnogram (PSG)-documented OSA who underwent T&A. Pre- and postoperative PSGs were available for 70 of these patients.

In the patients with pre- and postoperative PSGs, the researchers found that after T&A, there were significant improvements in the mean apnea hypopnea index (34.8 to 5.7); baseline oxygen saturation (96.6% to 97.2%); minimum oxygen saturation (77.2% to 89.9%); and sleep efficiency (84.7% to 88.7%). 21% of the patients had residual OSA when OSA was defined as apnea hypopnea index >5. The severity of preoperative OSA was the most consistent predictor of residual OSA after T&A (P=0.02).

“In a subgroup of children younger than 3 years with OSA, we found a high rate of residual OSA after T&A,” the authors write. “Predictors of residual disease include severity of preoperative OSA as determined by PSG result. Postoperative PSGs might be indicated in these patients.”

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