(HealthDay News) — The Recurrence of Kidney Stone (ROKS) nomogram identifies patients with kidney stones who are at high risk for a second symptomatic episode, according to research published online August 7 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

Andrew D. Rule, MD, of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, and colleagues used clinical characteristics from adult, first-time symptomatic kidney stone formers to develop a nomogram that predicts symptomatic recurrence.

The researchers found that the rate of symptomatic recurrence among first-time adult kidney stone formers was 11% at two years, 20% at five years, 31% at 10 years, and 39% at 15 years. Risk factors for recurrence included younger age, male sex, white race, family history of kidney stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Between the first and fifth quintiles of the nomogram score, 10-year recurrence rates for kidney stones ranged from 12 to 56%.

“If we knew which patients were at high risk for another symptomatic kidney stone, then we could better advise patients on whether to follow stone prevention diets or take medications,” Rule said in a statement. “At the same time, patients who are at low risk of having another kidney stone may not need restrictive diets and medications.”

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