Limited evidence exists on whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4), a class of agents used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, increase the risk of infection. A recent study published in the journal Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism investigates this association by examining the odds of patients taking a DPP-4 inhibitor or another oral anti-diabetic medication being hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)

Researchers conducted a case-control analysis within a cohort of new anti-diabetic drug users between 2007–2012. Among this cohort, which included 49,653 patients, 562 were hospitalized with CAP (incidence rate: 5.2/1000 person-years). The use of DPP-4 inhibitors was not linked to an increased risk of CAP hospitalization when compared with the use of two or more oral anti-diabetic medications (OR: 0.80).

The authors conclude that while DPP-4 inhibitor use may not be associated with an increased risk in CAP hospitalization, more research would need to be conducted to see if these drugs increase the risk of other serious infections.