(HealthDay News) – Bottle feeding is associated with an increased risk of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) in infants, with significant modifications by maternal age and parity, according to a study published online Oct. 21 in JAMA Pediatrics.

Jarod P. McAteer, MD, MPH, from Seattle Children’s Hospital, and colleagues conducted a population-based case-control study of births from 2003–2009 to determine the correlation between bottle feeding after birth and the development of HPS.

The researchers observed a decrease in the incidence of HPS over time, from 14 per 10,000 births in 2003 to nine per 10,000 in 2009. This corresponded to an increase in the prevalence of breastfeeding, from 80% in 2003 to 94% in 2009. Cases were more likely than controls to be bottle fed after birth (19.5% vs. 9.1%). Bottle feeding correlated with an increased risk of HPS even after adjustment (odds ratio, 2.31). The correlation was not associated with sex or maternal smoking status but was modified significantly by maternal age and parity.

“These data suggest that bottle feeding may play a role in HPS etiology, and further investigations may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the observed effect modification by age and parity,” the authors write.

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