Data from the 2000–2014 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and the National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) indicate a significant increase in hospitalization rates for acute kidney injury (AKI) among U.S. adults. 

Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) aimed to analyze data from the NIS and NHIS on diabetes- and nondiabetes-related AKI trends among U.S. residents aged ≥20 years with and without diabetes. 

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For the report, AKI was defined as the occurrence of at least 1 diagnostic code 584 (acute renal failure) or the occurrence of at least 1 procedure code of 39.95 (hemodialysis) or 54.98 (peritoneal dialysis). If diabetes (ICD-9-CM code 250) was listed as a diagnosis for hospitalization, then it was considered to be diabetes-related.

The age-standardized rate of AKI hospitalizations rose by 139% (from 23.1 to 55.3 per 1,000 persons; P<0.001) among adults with diabetes and by 230% (from 3.5 to 11.7 per 1,000 persons; P<0.001) among adults without diabetes. The trends for dialysis-treated AKI were similar but absolute rates were lower, the authors noted. 

When standardized by gender, AKI hospitalization rates rose by 165% (from 23.0 to 60.9 per 1,000 persons; P<0.001) among males and by 114% (from 23.2 to 49.7; P<0.001) among females. Increases of 226% and 238% were seen among males and females without diabetes, respectively. 

For dialysis-treated AKI, hospitalization rates rose by 68% for males with diabetes and by 44% for women with diabetes. Rates were much lower for those without diabetes but the researchers still observed a significant increasing trend. 

“Improving both patient and provider awareness that diabetes, hypertension, and advancing age are frequently associated with acute kidney injury might reduce its occurrence and improve management of the underlying diseases in an aging population,” the authors concluded. 

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