5. Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble compound that’s important as much for brain development as it is for bone development. Data suggests low maternal levels of vitamin D are implicated in schizophrenia risk, and deficiency is linked to increased depressive symptoms. But there’s little evidence to support the use of vitamin D supplements for preventing depression.

Vitamin D can be synthesised via sunlight: 15 minutes a day on the skin between 10am and 3pm during summer, although be sure to seek professional health advice regarding skin cancer concerns. Aside from sunlight, vitamin D can also be found in oily fish, UVB-exposed mushrooms and fortified milk.


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6. Plant-based antioxidants

An increase in oxidative stress and damage to brain cells has been implicated in a range of mental disorders, including depression and dementia. Antioxidant compounds (such as “polyphenols”, which are found in fruits and certain herbs) may “mop up” free radicals that damage cells to provide a natural way to combat excessive oxidation.

Consuming natural antioxidant compounds through your diet is better than taking supplements of high doses of synthetic vitamin A, C or E, as the oxidative system is finely tuned and excess may actually be harmful.

Fruits and vegetables contain these antioxidant compounds in relative abundance, especially blackberries, blueberries, raspberries and goji berries; grapes; mangoes and mangosteen; onions; garlic; kale; as well as green and black tea; various herbal teas; and coffee.