Table 2 — Results of Analysis of Patient Populations/Modifiers

Evidence

Primary Prevention for Patients without Known CVD


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• Insufficient evidence: cardiac death, CHF death, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke death, revascularization, ACS, angina pectoris, ventricular arrhythmia, incident HTN, TC/HDL-c ratio, LDL-c/HDL-c ratio
• Insufficient/inconsistent evidence: CHD death, MI death, all-cause death, total MI and SCD
• Observational evidence: no association for MACE, CVD death, total stroke death, incident CHD, total stroke, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, AFib, CHF
• No effect: BP, MAP, LDL-c, and HDL-c
• Strong RCT evidence: significant protective effect for Tg

Primary Prevention for Patients at High Risk for CVD

• Insufficient evidence: CVD death, cardiac death, CHD death, MI death, CHF death, total stroke death, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke death, incident CHD, revascularization, ACS, angina pectoris, total stroke, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, SCD, AFib, ventricular arrhythmia, CHF, incident HTN, MAP
• Inconsistent evidence: total MI
• No effect: MACE, all-cause death, BP, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC/HDL-c ratio, LDL-c/HDL-c ratio
• Strong RCT evidence: significant protective effect for Tg

Secondary Prevention for Patients with Known CVD

• Insufficient evidence: MI death, CHF death, total stroke death, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke death, CHD, ACS, angina pectoris, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, ventricular arrhythmia, incident HTN, MAP, TC/HDL-c ratio, LDL-c/HDL-c ratio
• Inconsistent evidence: CVD death, cardiac death
• No effect: MACE, CHD death, all-cause death, total MI, revascularization, total stroke, SCD, AFib, CHF, BP, LDL-c
• Strong RCT evidence: significant protective effect for Tg

Race/Ethnicity

• Insufficient evidence to determine effect/association in preventing CVD outcomes

Pre- vs. Postmenopausal Women

• Insufficient evidence to determine effect/association in preventing CVD outcomes

Age

• No differences in association

Gender

• Varying evidence

o 1 trial favored women

o 2 observational studies favored men

o 9 studies found no difference between men and women

Patients with Potential Confounders

• Insufficient evidence: beta-blocker use, baseline HDL-c, glargine use, nitrate use, digoxin use, diuretic use, estimated glomerular filtration rate, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, anticoagulant use, TC levels, use of fish oil supplements
• Inconsistent evidence: Tg levels, statin use, b-vitamin use, baseline LDL-c
• Evidence of no interactions: body mass index, status of HTN and diabetes, baseline TC/HDL-c ratio

Abbreviations for Figures/Tables: BP = blood pressure; CHD = coronary heart disease; CHF = congestive heart failure; CKD = nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease; CMS = cardiometabolic syndrome; CVA = cerebrovascular accident; DM = diabetes mellitus; HDL-c = high density lipoprotein cholesterol; HTN = hypertension; LDL-c = low density lipoprotein cholesterol; MACE = major adverse cardiovascular event; MI = myocardial infarction; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; SCD = sudden cardiac death; TC = total cholesterol.