Table 1 —The Pathogenic Sequence From Lipid Metabolism to NAFLD

Dyslipidemia →

Intrahepatic lipid accumulation →


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Inflammatory Process

  • Increased lipolysis
  • Increased liver FFA uptake
  • Increased VLDL synthesis
  • Decreased FFA oxidation
  • Decreased TG export
  • Increased inflammation
  • Increased oxidative stress
  • Increased adipokine/cytokine production

FFA=free fatty acid; VLDL=very low density lipoprotein; TG-triglycerides
Katsiki N, et al. Metabolism. 2016 Aug;65(8):1109-23.

Table 2 — Mechanisms/Comorbidities that Increase Cardiac and Non-Cardiac Vascular Disease Risk in NAFLD

  • Oxidative stress
  • Inflammation
  • Endothelial dysfunction
  • Cytokine abnormalities
  • Hypertension
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Obesity
  • T2DM
  • Elevated serum liver enzyme activities
  • Subclinical atherosclerosis
  • Coronary/abdominal aortic calcification
  • Impaired left ventricular function
  • Heart failure
  • Epicardial fat
  • Peripheral artery disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Hyperuricemia
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Psoriasis
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Obstructive sleep apnea

T2DM=type 2 diabetes mellitus
Katsiki N, et al. Metabolism. 2016 Aug;65(8):1109-23.

Table 3 — Therapeutic Targets Under Research for NAFLD

  • MicroRNAs (mirRs) as potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers
  • Modulating epigenetic pathways
  • Liver transplantation
  • LDL receptor-related protein 6
  • Leptin replacement therapy
  • Adiponectin receptor agonists
  • Irisin (a newly discovered myokine)
  • Gut microbiota
  • Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors

Katsiki N, et al. Metabolism. 2016 Aug;65(8):1109-23.