Based on the results of this review, C. frutescens (cayenne) appears to reduce pain more than placebo; H. procumbens, S. alba, S. officinale L., S. chilensis, and lavender essential oil were possibly more effective than placebo. However, the quality of evidence for these herbal products is moderate at best. Within the studies used for this review, no significant adverse events were noted; mild transient GI complaints and skin irritations were primarily reported. The authors also point out that the type of preparation can also influence the amount of product per dose and therefore the efficacy. More trials would need to be conducted before these herbal products can be recommended for pain management in LBP.


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