Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey)

  • Comfrey extract ointment may possibly be better than placebo ointment for short-term improvements in pain as assessed by visual analogue scale in acute LBP (low quality evidence)

Solidago chilensis (Brazilian arnica)

  • Brazilian arnica-containing gel applied twice daily may improve pain and lumbar flexibility as compared to placebo gel in patients with lumbago (low quality evidence)


  • Lavender essential oil applied by acupressure may reduce pain perception and improve lateral spine flexion and walking time in acute LBP (very low quality evidence)