All participants, regardless of age, sex, or country of origin, expressed consistently positive responses, stating that the content was understandable and relevant. They recommended some culture-specific wording changes. It was also decided to revise the PDA from seventh/eight grade reading level to third/fourth grade level.

The researchers concluded that their initiative “supports the importance of developing culturally sensitive tools for Hispanic/Latinos with poorly controlled T2DM, as disparities exist.”11


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The English version PDA “is evidence-based and the content is consistent with current recommendations and clinical guidelines.”5 While the Spanish version is still undergoing further study with a wider Hispanic/Latino audience, it has shown enough promise to already be available for clinician use. Both PDA versions are available at

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