A prototype was developed and reviewed by two focus groups consisting of adult patients with T2DM from an array of different educational and socioeconomic backgrounds (n=7 per group). Participants’ feedback was included in a second (“beta”) version.

Three physicians not involved in developing the PDA reviewed the “beta” version with 10 of their patients. The PDA was very favorably received: 90% of the patients “reported that the PDA helped them to think about the pros and cons of their medication options, prepared them to make a better decisions, helped them recognize that the decision depends on what matters most to them” and “helped them organize their thoughts about the decision”5 Participants reported feeling that they were better prepared to have a follow-up conversation with their doctors.

The development team submitted the PDA to the International Patient Decision Aids Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration, which evaluates the quality of PDAs.6-8 The diabetes PDA received the highest global score to date on the IPDAS evaluation.


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The authors concluded that the PDA can “support the T2DM medication decision-process.”5