"In the context of our findings, young adults should be trained in identifying and resisting contents that appear on social media, but share many of the characteristics of peer pressure to use unhealthy products," the authors write.
No significant differences in increases were seen across adult ages 18 to 64 years; the increases ranged between 1 and 2 percentage points.
Among youth, there has been an increase in the use of nicotine-delivering electronic cigarettes worldwide. In addition to physical dependence, youth are susceptible to the social and environmental influences to use electronic cigarettes.
These correlations were similar in size to the autoregressive link between PS from ages 15 to 16. There was a statistically significant association for PS at age 15 years with cannabis use at age 16 years.
Many high school students were engaged in behaviors associated with chronic disease; 8.8% had smoked cigarettes and 13.2% had used an electronic vapor product on at least 1 day during the past 30 days.
The researchers found that freshly isolated endothelial cells from participants who use non-menthol- or menthol-flavored tobacco cigarettes showed impaired A23187-stimulated nitric oxide production.
Participants were randomized to either the control arm (893 participants) and received standard smoking cessation pharmacotherapy and behavioral support or to the preloading arm (899 adults) who received the same treatment supplemented by four weeks of 21mg nicotine patch use before quitting.
The researchers found that from 2011 to 2017 there was a decrease in current use of any tobacco product among high school students, from 24.2 to 19.6%, and from 7.5 to 5.6% among middle school students.
The FDA suggests that 5 million adult smokers could quit within 1 year of implementation; furthermore, 33 million people could avoid becoming regular smokers by the end of the century.
Current cannabis use among parents with children at home increased from 4.9% to 6.8% while current cigarette use declined from 27.6% to 20.2% from 2002-2015, as measured by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.
Data were obtained from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2002 to 2015. The researchers did not have information on the method of cannabis use (ie, smoking versus edible forms).
The researchers found that 48.9% of mental health treatment facilities reported screening patients for tobacco use in 2016; 37.6, 25.2, and 21.5% offered tobacco cessation counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, and non-nicotine tobacco cessation medications, respectively.
The rate of emergency department visitation was similar for all groups, except the marijuana plus tobacco group, which had a significantly higher rate of emergency department visits compared with controls.
The authors note that e-cigarettes seem to double the likelihood of achieving abstinence and are as effective as nicotine replacement therapy for supporting cessation.
In a wide ranging statement, the FDA commissioner Scott Gottlieb, MD, specifically targets novel nicotine-delivery products as being problematic since many of these devices resemble USB flash drives, have high nicotine levels and have emissions that are hard to see.
Among adolescents aged 12-17 years, e-cigarette use was linked with new onset marijuana use one year later, as determined by a large longitudinal survey.
Comparing the 9 months before with the nine months after the federal child-resistant packaging law went into effect, there was a significant decrease in the mean number of exposures among states without a preexisting law requiring child-resistant packaging, averaging 4.4 fewer exposures per state after law implementation.
Data were reviewed from 69 studies of 2,152 cannabis users (mean age, 20.6 years) and 6,575 comparison participants (mean age, 20.8 years) with minimal cannabis exposure.
The researchers found that, compared with never smoking, current smoking was associated with higher mean left ventricular (LV) mass index and lower mean LV circumferential strain after adjustment for confounding factors
Compared with men in the top income group, men in the bottom income group (poorest 20% of the population) would gain 6.7 times more life years (155 versus 23 million). For each smoker in the bottom income group, the average life years gained from cessation was 5.1 times that of the top group (1.46 versus 0.23 years).
The researchers found that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol was detected at low concentrations at all the time points beyond time 0, but no metabolites were detected at any time point.
The researchers found that receptivity to any advertising was high at wave 1 for those aged 12 to 14 years (44%) and highest for those aged 18 to 21 years (68.7%).
From 2005 to 2017, the subset of marijuana searches on Google indicative of shopping increased 199%: During June 2017 there were 1.4 to 2.4 million marijuana shopping searches.
The more chemicals in an e-liquid, the more toxic it was likely to be; in addition, vanillin was associated with elevated toxicity values. There was a correlation for the concentration of cinnamaldehyde and vanillin, but not triacetin, with toxicity.
In a study of hospitalized smokers who planned to quit smoking post-discharge, users of e-cigarettes were not as likely as nonusers to refrain from using tobacco at 6 months.