Risk Factors for Overactive Bladder and Urinary Incontinence
|RISK FACTORS FOR OVERACTIVE BLADDER AND URINARY INCONTINENCE|
|Age||The prevalence of symptoms increases significantly. In one study, incidence rose from 3.4% of men between the ages of 40 and 44, to 41.9% of men 75 years and older.||Prevalence also increases with age. In the same study, incidence increased from 8.7% of women between the ages of 40 and 44, to 31.3% of those 75 years and older.|
|Chronic medical conditions||Multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, stroke, dementia, and impaired mobility may cause bladder symptoms.||Same for women.|
|Medications||Diuretics, antidepressants, alpha-agonists, beta-antagonists, sedatives, anti-cholinergics, and analgesics can all cause urinary tract symptoms.||Same for women.|
|Menopause and estrogen depletion||N/A||Menopause has been associated with a decrease in urethralmucosa vascularity and thickness, as a result of diminished estrogen production.|
|Pelvic surgery||Incontinence has been seen in men following surgical treatment for prostate cancer.||Hysterectomy may increase a woman's risk of incontinence.|
|Pregnancy and childbirth||N/A||Pregnancy and vaginal childbirth increase the risk of incontinence. Post-childbirth incontinence has been associated with the use of forceps, vacuum extraction, episiotomy, and pudendal anesthesia.|
|Prostate-related conditions||BPH, and prostatic obstruction secondary to BPH. Prostate cancer may also cause symptoms.||N/A|
|Race||No studies have been done in men comparing race and incidence of OAB.||White women appear to be at higher risk for incontinence. Compared with black women, they may have a shorter urethra, weaker pelvic floor muscles, and a lower bladder neck.|
Newman DK. Managing and Treating Urinary Incontinence. Baltimore, MD: Health Professions Press; 2002.
Brown JS, McGhan WF, Chokroverty S. Comorbidities associated with overactive bladder. Am J Manag Care. 2000;6(11 Suppl):S574–9.
Milsom I, Abrams P, Cardozo L, et al. How widespread are the symptoms of an overactive bladder and how are they managed? A population-based prevalence study. BJU Int. 2001;87(9):760–6.