Poisoning & Drug Dependence
In addition, the FDA wants to be sure young people are aware that e-cigarettes can contain dangerous chemicals such as acrolein, a chemical that can cause irreversible lung damage; formaldehyde, a cancer-causing chemical; and toxic metal particles like chromium, lead and nickel, which can be inhaled into the lungs.
The researchers found that 26.4% of adults met the definition of long-term use 1 year after the index prescription; they were prescribed a mean of 232.7 benzodiazepine days.
CroFab is a sheep-derived antivenin indicated for the management of adult and pediatric patients with North American crotalid (rattlesnakes, copperheads, cottonmouths/water moccasins) envenomation.
All of these brands - JUUL, Vuse, MarkTen, blu e-cigs, and Logic - made up the majority of products sold illegally to minors, the agency said.
Mu opioid peptide (MOP) receptor agonists provide effective pain relief, but are associated with severe side effects such as respiratory depression, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, dependence, and abuse.
Buerger's disease is a nonatherosclerotic, segmental inflammatory disorder that affects small and medium vessels of the upper and lower extremities and is strongly associated with tobacco exposure.
Recent tests revealed "higher than acceptable levels... (of) copper and/or lead" in at least 1 water source - such as a fountain or sink - at 16 of 24 schools, Vitti said.
Approximately 300 proteins were differentially expressed in epithelial cells from biopsy samples in smoker and vaper airways, only 78 proteins were commonly altered in both groups, and 113 were uniquely altered in vapers.
The legalization of marijuana in several states has led to increased use of the drug for both medicinal and recreational purposes.
Adults within the LBGTQ community more likely to use e-cigarettes. 2. Participants with chronic health conditions and current combustible cigarette smokers also had higher rates of e-cigarette use.
Adults aged 18 to 34 had the highest frequency of marijuana use compared to all other age groups.
The researchers found that 15,240 of the 466,842 participants with information on e-cigarette use were current e-cigarette smokers, a prevalence of 4.5%, which corresponds to 10.8 million adult users in the United States.
The prevalence of prenatal marijuana use was 5.3% by self-report or toxicologic test findings; prevalence was greater among females with severe and mild versus no NVP (11.3 and 8.4, respectively, vs 4.5%).
Pregnant women who screened positive for marijuana often also tested positive for at least 1 other substance.
The researchers observed significant decreases in pharmacologic treatment (from 87.1 to 40%), adjunctive agent use (from 33.6 to 2.4%), hospitalization length of stay (from 17.4 to 11.3 days), and opioid treatment days (from 16.2 to 12.7).
"All health care providers have a role in combating the OUD epidemic and its infectious disease consequences. Those who treat infectious complications of OUD are well-suited to screen for OUD and begin treatment with effective US Food and Drug Administration-approved medications," the authors write.
The AMA is urging the federal government to move quickly to regulate e-cigarettes and require manufacturers to list the ingredients and nicotine content clearly on product labels, as well as a warning of the addictive quality of nicotine.
While approved in Europe, Asia, and Latin America, tianeptine, an opioid receptor agonist, is an unscheduled pharmaceutical agent in the US that has been linked to serious adverse events, including death, when used for recreational purposes.