Approximately 12,000 patients took part in the CAMELLIA-TIMI 61 trial in which participants were randomized to either lorcaserin HCl 10mg twice daily or placebo.
Age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was increased for men living in medium or small metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) versus those living in large MSAs (42.4 vs 31.8%); the difference for men living in large MSAs vs non-MSAs was not statistically significant.
The researchers found that from baseline to week 12, the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry percentage total body fat increased by 1.18, 4.12, and 1.66% for risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole, respectively, and was significantly greater for olanzapine than risperidone or aripiprazole.
Compared to women with stable healthy normal-weight, women who maintained metabolically healthy obesity during follow-up were still at elevated cardiovascular risk (hazard ratio, 1.57); this risk was lower than for initially metabolically healthy women who converted to an unhealthy phenotype (hazard ratios, 1.90 and 2.74 for normal-weight and obesity, respectively).
Higher BMI in lesbian and bisexual women is an important contributor to the greater level of type 2 diabetes among this population, the authors found.
Improved research methods needed to determine effectiveness of anti-obesity public health initiatives
Researchers found that amongst nearly 300 studies reporting the impact of policies, programs, or changes in built environment on controlling and preventing obesity, most natural experiments had high risk of bias and poor handling of dropouts and withdrawals.
The researchers found that at baseline, severely obese patients had higher disability scores versus overweight patients in both Forward and VARA.
In terms of study design, guidance, documentation, and communication about methods used should be improved. Cross-cutting recommendations are provided for improving the rigor of natural experiments in obesity.
The researchers found that on average, patients and their parents perceived FBT as "quite helpful" and "extremely helpful," respectively.
Weight stigma was associated with increased odds of having a body mass index (BMI) consistent with underweight or obesity compared with normal weight.
"The combination of ethnicity/race with markers of insulin resistance and genetic factors might help identify obese youth at risk for developing fatty liver," the authors write.
Five factors correlated with breastfeeding behaviors: intentions to breastfeed; belief in the nutritional adequacy and sufficiency of breast milk; belief about others' infant feeding preferences; body image; and social knowledge.
Each additional 10cm greater waist circumference at early childhood was associated with 1.99 higher odds of elevated ALT at mid-childhood, in multivariable-adjusted models.
Compared with boys who were neither overweight during childhood or puberty, boys developing overweight during puberty had increased risk of heart failure.
Increases in prevalence were seen for women, adults aged 40 to 59 years, and 60 years or older. The age-standardized prevalence of severe obesity increased significantly from 5.7% in 2007 to 2008 to 7.7% in 2015 to 2016
Novo Nordisk is planning on initiating a Phase 3 trial of semaglutide that will include 4,500 individuals who are overweight or obese sometime in 2018. Semaglutide is currently not approved for treatment of obesity.
The researchers found that the mean hemoglobin A1c concentration decreased from 6.8 to 5.5% in Teen-LABS and increased from 6.4 to 7.8% in TODAY participants during 2 years.
The researchers found that at age 4 years there was a non-significant difference in height z-scores between children of women randomized to placebo and those randomized to metformin.
During 7 years of follow-up, the researchers identified 5,710 cases of MI among 265,988 women and 213,622 men without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline. In both sexes, there was an approximate log-linear relationship between measures of general and central adiposity and the risk of MI.
The researchers found that infants born vaginally to overweight or obese mothers were significantly more likely to become overweight at age 1 year, compared with being born vaginally to a normal-weight mother (adjusted odds ratio, 3.33).
The obesity-related survival benefit was seen only for patients receiving targeted therapy (hazard ratios, 0.72 and 0.6 for progression-free and overall survival, respectively) and immunotherapy (hazard ratios, 0.75 and 0.64, respectively), not for patients receiving chemotherapy.
Draft recommendation statement concludes that doctors should provide, refer adults to interventions
The researchers found that the mean 12-month macronutrient distributions were 48 versus 30% for carbohydrates, 29 versus 45% for fat, and 21 versus 23% for protein in the HLF versus HLC diets. At 12 months, weight change was −5.3 and −6.0 kg for the HLF and HLC diet.
"Patients must feel that you are empathetic and do not judge them. This is key not only to discussing weight, but to any subject that comes up," said Dr Windel Stracener, a family practitioner for 22 years.
Findings among Korean women evaluated for hypertension at postmenopausal age. Similarly, greater obesity and insulin resistance significantly weakened the protective effects of having breastfed for longer.