Bigger Breakfast Better for Glucose Control?
A new study suggests consuming a high-caloric breakfast and a more modest dinner may suppress blood glucose spikes throughout the day. Findings from the study are published in Diabetologia.
The study by researchers at Tel Aviv University evaluated 18 men and women aged 30–70 years with type 2 diabetes. Patients were randomized to either a B diet (2946kj breakfast, 2523kj lunch, and 858kj dinner) or D diet (858kj breakfast, 2523kj lunch, and 2946kj dinner) for one week. Both diets consisted of the same total energy, but consumed at different times throughout the day. After following the diet at home for six days, each group consumed their assigned meal plan at the clinic on the seventh day. Blood samples were obtained prior to breakfast and at regular intervals after the meal; blood sampling was performed at the same intervals after lunch and dinner. Researchers measured post-meal glucose levels, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon-like-peptide 1 hormone (GLP-1, also known as incretin). Patients were then switched to the alternate diet plan two weeks later and the tests were repeated.
The study results showed that post-meal glucose levels were 20% lower and insulin, C-peptide, and GLP-1 levels were 20% higher in subjects on the B diet vs. those on the D diet. Also, glucose levels rose 23% less after lunch when preceded by a large breakfast.
High-energy breakfasts with more modest dinners may be an effective approach to improve glycemic approach and potentially reduce cardiovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes, the researchers conclude.
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