Echocardiogram: Substernal Plunging Goiter



Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are both associated with clinically significant cardiovascular derangements. In hypothyroidism, these include pericardial effusion, heart failure, and the complex interrelationship between hypothyroidism and ischemic heart disease. In rare cases, substernal goiters can cause pericardial effusions. The incidence of pericardial effusions is 3–6%, with occurrence dependent up on the severity of the disease.